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Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Versus Observation in Radically Treated Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Randomized Phase III NVALT-11/DLCRG-02 Study.

7 timer 18 min siden
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Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Versus Observation in Radically Treated Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Randomized Phase III NVALT-11/DLCRG-02 Study.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 22;:JCO2017775817

Authors: De Ruysscher D, Dingemans AC, Praag J, Belderbos J, Tissing-Tan C, Herder J, Haitjema T, Ubbels F, Lagerwaard F, El Sharouni SY, Stigt JA, Smit E, van Tinteren H, van der Noort V, Groen HJM

Abstract
Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) reduces the incidence of symptomatic brain metastases in patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with curative intention. Patients and Methods Patients with stage III NSCLC-staged with a contrast-enhanced brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging-were randomly assigned to either observation or PCI after concurrent/sequential chemoradiotherapy with or without surgery. The primary end point-development of symptomatic brain metastases at 24 months-was defined as one or a combination of key symptoms that suggest brain metastases-signs of increased intracranial pressure, headache, nausea and vomiting, cognitive or affective disturbances, seizures, and focal neurologic symptoms-and magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography demonstrating the existence of brain metastasis. Adverse effects, survival, quality of life, quality-adjusted survival, and health care costs were secondary end points. Results Between 2009 and 2015, 175 patients were randomly assigned: 87 received PCI and 88 underwent observation only. Median follow-up was 48.5 months (95% CI, 39 to 54 months). Six (7.0%) of 86 patients in the PCI group and 24 (27.2%) of 88 patients in the control group had symptomatic brain metastases ( P = .001). PCI significantly increased the time to develop symptomatic brain metastases (hazard ratio, 0.23; [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.56]; P = .0012). Median time to develop brain metastases was not reached in either arm. Overall survival was not significantly different between both arms. Grade 1 and 2 memory impairment (26 of 86 v seven of 88 patients) and cognitive disturbance (16 of 86 v three of 88 patients) were significantly increased in the PCI arm. Quality of life was only decreased 3 months post-PCI and was similar to the observation arm thereafter. Conclusion PCI significantly decreased the proportion of patients who developed symptomatic brain metastases with an increase of low-grade toxicity.

PMID: 29787357 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Exploratory Analysis of Brigatinib Activity in Patients With Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Brain Metastases in Two Clinical Trials.

ons, 05/23/2018 - 08:00
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Exploratory Analysis of Brigatinib Activity in Patients With Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Brain Metastases in Two Clinical Trials.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 16;:JCO2017775841

Authors: Camidge DR, Kim DW, Tiseo M, Langer CJ, Ahn MJ, Shaw AT, Huber RM, Hochmair MJ, Lee DH, Bazhenova LA, Gold KA, Ou SI, West HL, Reichmann W, Haney J, Clackson T, Kerstein D, Gettinger SN

Abstract
Purpose In patients with crizotinib-treated, anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene ( ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (ALK-positive NSCLC), initial disease progression often occurs in the CNS. We evaluated brigatinib, a next-generation ALK inhibitor, in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC with brain metastases. Patients and Methods Patients with ALK-positive NSCLC received brigatinib (90 to 240 mg total daily) in a phase I/II trial (phI/II; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01449461) and in the subsequent randomized phase II trial ALTA (ALK in Lung Cancer Trial of AP26113; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02094573) patients in arm A received 90 mg once daily; patients in arm B received 180 mg daily with 7-day lead-in at 90 mg. Primary end points (systemic objective response rates [ORRs]) were previously reported. Independent review committees assessed intracranial efficacy in patients with baseline brain metastases. Results Most patients with ALK-positive NSCLC had baseline brain metastases (50 of 79 [63%], phI/II; 80 of 112 [71%] and 73 of 110 [66%] in ALTA arms A and B, respectively), many of whom had no prior brain radiotherapy (23 of 50 [46%], phI/II; 32 of 80 [40%], ALTA arm A; 30 of 73 [41%], arm B). All patients, except four in phI/II, had received crizotinib. Among patients with measurable (≥ 10 mm) brain metastases, confirmed intracranial ORR was 53% (eight of 15; 95% CI, 27% to 79%) in phI/II, 46% (12 of 26; 95% CI, 27% to 67%) in ALTA arm A, and 67% (12 of 18; 95% CI, 41% to 87%) in arm B. Intracranial ORRs were similar in subsets without prior radiation or progression postradiation. Among patients with any baseline brain metastases, median intracranial progression-free survival (iPFS) was 14.6 months (95% CI, 12.7 to 36.8 months), phI/II; 15.6 months (95% CI, 9.0 to 18.3 months), ALTA arm A; 18.4 months (95% CI, 12.8 months to not reached), ALTA arm B. Conclusion Brigatinib yielded substantial intracranial responses and durable iPFS in ALK-positive, crizotinib-treated NSCLC, with highest iPFS in patients receiving 180 mg per day (with lead-in).

PMID: 29768119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Final Overall Survival Analysis From a Study Comparing First-Line Crizotinib With Chemotherapy: Results From PROFILE 1014.

ons, 05/23/2018 - 08:00
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Final Overall Survival Analysis From a Study Comparing First-Line Crizotinib With Chemotherapy: Results From PROFILE 1014.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 16;:JCO2017774794

Authors: Solomon BJ, Kim DW, Wu YL, Nakagawa K, Mekhail T, Felip E, Cappuzzo F, Paolini J, Usari T, Tang Y, Wilner KD, Blackhall F, Mok TS

Abstract
Purpose The phase III PROFILE 1014 trial compared crizotinib with chemotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) -positive advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Here, we report the final overall survival (OS) results. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned to receive oral crizotinib 250 mg twice daily (n = 172) or intravenous pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 plus cisplatin 75 mg/m2 or carboplatin (area under the concentration-time curve of 5 to 6 mg·mL/min) every 3 weeks for a maximum of six cycles (n = 171). Crossover to crizotinib was permitted after disease progression. OS was analyzed using a stratified log-rank test and a prespecified rank-preserving structural failure time model to account for crossover. Results Median follow-up duration for OS was approximately 46 months for both arms. In the chemotherapy arm, 144 patients (84.2%) received crizotinib in subsequent lines. Hazard ratio for OS was 0.760 (95% CI, 0.548 to 1.053; two-sided P = .0978). Median OS was not reached (NR) with crizotinib (95% CI, 45.8 months to NR) and 47.5 months with chemotherapy (95% CI, 32.2 months to NR). Survival probability at 4 years was 56.6% (95% CI, 48.3% to 64.1%) with crizotinib and 49.1% (95% CI, 40.5% to 57.1%) with chemotherapy. After crossover adjustment, there was an improvement in OS that favored crizotinib (hazard ratio, 0.346; 95% bootstrap CI, 0.081 to 0.718). The longest OS was observed in crizotinib-treated patients who received a subsequent ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor. No new safety signals were identified. Conclusion The final analysis of the PROFILE 1014 study provides a new benchmark for OS in patients with ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer and highlights the benefit of crizotinib for prolonging survival in this patient population.

PMID: 29768118 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Molecular Testing Guideline for the Selection of Patients With Lung Cancer for Targeted Therapy.

tor, 05/17/2018 - 03:00
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Molecular Testing Guideline for the Selection of Patients With Lung Cancer for Targeted Therapy.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 15;:JCO2018788240

Authors: Copur MS, Crockett D, Gauchan D, Ramaekers R, Mleczko K

PMID: 29763342 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Safety of Programmed Death-1 Pathway Inhibitors Among Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Preexisting Autoimmune Disorders.

ons, 05/16/2018 - 02:30
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Safety of Programmed Death-1 Pathway Inhibitors Among Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Preexisting Autoimmune Disorders.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 10;:JCO2017770305

Authors: Leonardi GC, Gainor JF, Altan M, Kravets S, Dahlberg SE, Gedmintas L, Azimi R, Rizvi H, Riess JW, Hellmann MD, Awad MM

Abstract
Purpose Although programmed death (PD)-1 pathway inhibitors are now used in nearly all patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the large number of patients with NSCLC and concurrent autoimmune disease (AID) have been universally excluded from immunotherapy clinical trials. Therefore, the safety of PD-1 and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors in patients with NSCLC and underlying AID is currently unknown. Methods As part of a multi-institutional effort, we retrospectively collected clinicopathologic data from patients with NSCLC and a history of AID who received monotherapy with either a PD-1 or a PD-L1 (herein referred to as PD-[L]1) inhibitor. Qualifying AIDs included but were not limited to: rheumatologic, neurologic, endocrine, GI, and dermatologic conditions. Results We identified 56 patients with NSCLC and an AID who received a PD-(L)1 inhibitor. At the time of treatment initiation, 18% of patients had active AID symptoms and 20% were receiving immunomodulatory agents for their AID. A total of 55% of patients developed an AID flare and/or an immune-related adverse event (irAE). Exacerbation of the AID occurred in 13 patients (23% of the whole cohort), four of whom required systemic corticosteroids. Immune-related adverse events occurred in 21 patients (38%). Among irAEs, 74% were grade 1 or 2 and 26% were grade 3 or 4; eight patients required corticosteroids for irAE management. PD-(L)1 therapy was permanently discontinued in eight patients (14%) because of irAEs. The overall response rate to immunotherapy in this population was 22%. Conclusion In patients with NSCLC with AID treated with a PD-(L)1 inhibitor, exacerbation of AID occurred in a minority of patients. The incidence of irAEs was similar to reported rates in clinical trials where patients with AID were excluded. Adverse events were generally manageable and infrequently led to permanent discontinuation of immunotherapy.

PMID: 29746230 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Challenge of Proving the Value of Proton Therapy in an Unselected Patient Population in the Era of Precision Oncology: The Fallacy of a One-Size-Fits-All Strategy in Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer.

ons, 05/16/2018 - 02:30
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Challenge of Proving the Value of Proton Therapy in an Unselected Patient Population in the Era of Precision Oncology: The Fallacy of a One-Size-Fits-All Strategy in Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 10;:JCO2018783803

Authors: Rengan R, Redman M, Zeng J

PMID: 29746228 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Phase Ib Trial With Birabresib, a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Bromodomain and Extraterminal Proteins, in Patients With Selected Advanced Solid Tumors.

fre, 05/11/2018 - 00:00
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Phase Ib Trial With Birabresib, a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Bromodomain and Extraterminal Proteins, in Patients With Selected Advanced Solid Tumors.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 07;:JCO2018782292

Authors: Lewin J, Soria JC, Stathis A, Delord JP, Peters S, Awada A, Aftimos PG, Bekradda M, Rezai K, Zeng Z, Hussain A, Perez S, Siu LL, Massard C

Abstract
Purpose Birabresib (MK-8628/OTX015) is a first-in-class bromodomain inhibitor with activity in select hematologic tumors. Safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of birabresib were evaluated in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer, nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma (NMC), and non-small-cell lung cancer in this phase Ib study. Patients and Methods Forty-seven patients were enrolled to receive birabresib once daily at starting doses of 80 mg continuously (cohort A) or 100 mg for 7 consecutive days (cohort B) in 21-day cycles using a parallel dose escalation 3 + 3 design. The primary objective was occurrence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and determination of the recommended phase II dose. Results Of 46 treated patients, 26 had castrate-resistant prostate cancer, 10 NMC, and 10 non-small-cell lung cancer. For cohort A, four of 19 (21%) evaluable patients had DLTs at 80 mg once daily (grade 3 thrombocytopenia [n = 3], ALT/hyperbilirubinemia [n = 1]) and two of three had DLTs at 100 mg once daily (grade 2 anorexia and nausea with treatment delay > 7 days [n = 1], grade 4 thrombocytopenia [n = 1]). No DLTs occurred in cohort B. Of 46 patients, 38 (83%) had treatment-related adverse events (diarrhea, 17 [37%]; nausea, 17 [37%]; anorexia, 14 [30%]; vomiting, 12 [26%]; thrombocytopenia 10 [22%]). Three patients with NMC (80 mg once daily) had a partial response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] version 1.1) with duration of 1.4 to 8.4 months. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated a dose-proportional increase in birabresib exposure and rapid absorption. Conclusion The recommended phase II dose of birabresib in patients with select solid tumors is 80 mg once daily with continuous dosing. Birabresib has dose-proportional exposure and a favorable safety profile, with clinical activity observed in NMC. Future studies of birabresib must consider intermittent scheduling to possibly mitigate the toxicities of chronic dosing.

PMID: 29733771 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Patient-Reported Symptoms and Impact of Treatment With Osimertinib Versus Chemotherapy in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The AURA3 Trial.

fre, 05/11/2018 - 00:00
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Patient-Reported Symptoms and Impact of Treatment With Osimertinib Versus Chemotherapy in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The AURA3 Trial.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 07;:JCO2017772293

Authors: Lee CK, Novello S, Rydén A, Mann H, Mok T

Abstract
Purpose Capturing patient-reported outcome data is important for evaluating the overall clinical benefits of new cancer therapeutics. We assessed self-reported symptoms of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer in patients treated with osimertinib or chemotherapy in the AURA3 phase III trial. Patients and Methods Patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 13-item Quality of Life Questionnaire-Lung Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-LC13) questionnaire on disease-specific symptoms and the EORTC 30-item Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLC-C30) on general cancer symptoms, functioning, global health status, and quality of life. We assessed differences between treatments in time to deterioration of individual symptoms and odds of improvement (a deterioration or improvement was defined as a change in score from baseline of ≥ 10). Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a log-rank test stratified by ethnicity; odds ratios (ORs) were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for ethnicity. Results At baseline, the questionnaires were completed by 82% to 88% of patients, and 30% to 70% had individual key symptoms. Time to deterioration was longer with osimertinib than with chemotherapy for cough (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.53 to 1.05), chest pain (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.73), and dyspnea (HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.58). The proportion of symptomatic patients with improvement in global health status and quality of life was higher with osimertinib (80 [37%] of 215) than with chemotherapy (23 [22%] of 105; OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.67; P = .007). Proportions were also higher for appetite loss (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.31 to 4.84) and fatigue (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.20 to 3.22). Conclusion Time to deterioration of key symptoms was longer with osimertinib than with chemotherapy, and a higher proportion of patients had improvement in global health status and QoL, demonstrating improved patient outcomes with osimertinib.

PMID: 29733770 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Breaking the Glass Ceiling of Overall Survival in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

man, 05/07/2018 - 22:30
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Breaking the Glass Ceiling of Overall Survival in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Apr 30;:JCO2018782102

Authors: Reinmuth N, Reck M

PMID: 29708807 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Whole brain radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer - Authors' reply.

man, 05/07/2018 - 22:30
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Whole brain radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer - Authors' reply.

Lancet. 2017 04 08;389(10077):1395-1396

Authors: Langley RE, Nankivell M, Barton R, Faivre-Finn C, Mulvenna P, QUARTZ trial management group

PMID: 28402818 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Whole brain radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

man, 05/07/2018 - 22:30
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Whole brain radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

Lancet. 2017 04 08;389(10077):1395

Authors: Zhu J, Kang M, Fan X

PMID: 28402817 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Whole brain radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

man, 05/07/2018 - 22:30
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Whole brain radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

Lancet. 2017 04 08;389(10077):1394-1395

Authors: Cagney DN, Alexander BM, Aizer AA

PMID: 28402816 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Pembrolizumab plus Chemotherapy in Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

man, 04/30/2018 - 19:00
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Pembrolizumab plus Chemotherapy in Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med. 2018 Apr 16;:

Authors: Gandhi L, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Gadgeel S, Esteban E, Felip E, De Angelis F, Domine M, Clingan P, Hochmair MJ, Powell SF, Cheng SY, Bischoff HG, Peled N, Grossi F, Jennens RR, Reck M, Hui R, Garon EB, Boyer M, Rubio-Viqueira B, Novello S, Kurata T, Gray JE, Vida J, Wei Z, Yang J, Raftopoulos H, Pietanza MC, Garassino MC, KEYNOTE-189 Investigators

Abstract
Background First-line therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that lacks targetable mutations is platinum-based chemotherapy. Among patients with a tumor proportion score for programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) of 50% or greater, pembrolizumab has replaced cytotoxic chemotherapy as the first-line treatment of choice. The addition of pembrolizumab to chemotherapy resulted in significantly higher rates of response and longer progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone in a phase 2 trial. Methods In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) 616 patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without sensitizing EGFR or ALK mutations who had received no previous treatment for metastatic disease to receive pemetrexed and a platinum-based drug plus either 200 mg of pembrolizumab or placebo every 3 weeks for 4 cycles, followed by pembrolizumab or placebo for up to a total of 35 cycles plus pemetrexed maintenance therapy. Crossover to pembrolizumab monotherapy was permitted among the patients in the placebo-combination group who had verified disease progression. The primary end points were overall survival and progression-free survival, as assessed by blinded, independent central radiologic review. Results After a median follow-up of 10.5 months, the estimated rate of overall survival at 12 months was 69.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.1 to 73.8) in the pembrolizumab-combination group versus 49.4% (95% CI, 42.1 to 56.2) in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for death, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; P<0.001). Improvement in overall survival was seen across all PD-L1 categories that were evaluated. Median progression-free survival was 8.8 months (95% CI, 7.6 to 9.2) in the pembrolizumab-combination group and 4.9 months (95% CI, 4.7 to 5.5) in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.64; P<0.001). Adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 67.2% of the patients in the pembrolizumab-combination group and in 65.8% of those in the placebo-combination group. Conclusions In patients with previously untreated metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without EGFR or ALK mutations, the addition of pembrolizumab to standard chemotherapy of pemetrexed and a platinum-based drug resulted in significantly longer overall survival and progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone. (Funded by Merck; KEYNOTE-189 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02578680 .).

PMID: 29658856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Neoadjuvant PD-1 Blockade in Resectable Lung Cancer.

man, 04/30/2018 - 19:00
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Neoadjuvant PD-1 Blockade in Resectable Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med. 2018 Apr 16;:

Authors: Forde PM, Chaft JE, Smith KN, Anagnostou V, Cottrell TR, Hellmann MD, Zahurak M, Yang SC, Jones DR, Broderick S, Battafarano RJ, Velez MJ, Rekhtman N, Olah Z, Naidoo J, Marrone KA, Verde F, Guo H, Zhang J, Caushi JX, Chan HY, Sidhom JW, Scharpf RB, White J, Gabrielson E, Wang H, Rosner GL, Rusch V, Wolchok JD, Merghoub T, Taube JM, Velculescu VE, Topalian SL, Brahmer JR, Pardoll DM

Abstract
Background Antibodies that block programmed death 1 (PD-1) protein improve survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but have not been tested in resectable NSCLC, a condition in which little progress has been made during the past decade. Methods In this pilot study, we administered two preoperative doses of PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab in adults with untreated, surgically resectable early (stage I, II, or IIIA) NSCLC. Nivolumab (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight) was administered intravenously every 2 weeks, with surgery planned approximately 4 weeks after the first dose. The primary end points of the study were safety and feasibility. We also evaluated the tumor pathological response, expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), mutational burden, and mutation-associated, neoantigen-specific T-cell responses. Results Neoadjuvant nivolumab had an acceptable side-effect profile and was not associated with delays in surgery. Of the 21 tumors that were removed, 20 were completely resected. A major pathological response occurred in 9 of 20 resected tumors (45%). Responses occurred in both PD-L1-positive and PD-L1-negative tumors. There was a significant correlation between the pathological response and the pretreatment tumor mutational burden. The number of T-cell clones that were found in both the tumor and peripheral blood increased systemically after PD-1 blockade in eight of nine patients who were evaluated. Mutation-associated, neoantigen-specific T-cell clones from a primary tumor with a complete response on pathological assessment rapidly expanded in peripheral blood at 2 to 4 weeks after treatment; some of these clones were not detected before the administration of nivolumab. Conclusions Neoadjuvant nivolumab was associated with few side effects, did not delay surgery, and induced a major pathological response in 45% of resected tumors. The tumor mutational burden was predictive of the pathological response to PD-1 blockade. Treatment induced expansion of mutation-associated, neoantigen-specific T-cell clones in peripheral blood. (Funded by Cancer Research Institute-Stand Up 2 Cancer and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02259621 .).

PMID: 29658848 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Lung Cancer with a High Tumor Mutational Burden.

man, 04/30/2018 - 19:00
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Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Lung Cancer with a High Tumor Mutational Burden.

N Engl J Med. 2018 Apr 16;:

Authors: Hellmann MD, Ciuleanu TE, Pluzanski A, Lee JS, Otterson GA, Audigier-Valette C, Minenza E, Linardou H, Burgers S, Salman P, Borghaei H, Ramalingam SS, Brahmer J, Reck M, O'Byrne KJ, Geese WJ, Green G, Chang H, Szustakowski J, Bhagavatheeswaran P, Healey D, Fu Y, Nathan F, Paz-Ares L

Abstract
Background Nivolumab plus ipilimumab showed promising efficacy for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a phase 1 trial, and tumor mutational burden has emerged as a potential biomarker of benefit. In this part of an open-label, multipart, phase 3 trial, we examined progression-free survival with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus chemotherapy among patients with a high tumor mutational burden (≥10 mutations per megabase). Methods We enrolled patients with stage IV or recurrent NSCLC that was not previously treated with chemotherapy. Those with a level of tumor programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression of at least 1% were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to receive nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab monotherapy, or chemotherapy; those with a tumor PD-L1 expression level of less than 1% were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to receive nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab plus chemotherapy, or chemotherapy. Tumor mutational burden was determined by the FoundationOne CDx assay. Results Progression-free survival among patients with a high tumor mutational burden was significantly longer with nivolumab plus ipilimumab than with chemotherapy. The 1-year progression-free survival rate was 42.6% with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus 13.2% with chemotherapy, and the median progression-free survival was 7.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5 to 13.2) versus 5.5 months (95% CI, 4.4 to 5.8) (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.58; 97.5% CI, 0.41 to 0.81; P<0.001). The objective response rate was 45.3% with nivolumab plus ipilimumab and 26.9% with chemotherapy. The benefit of nivolumab plus ipilimumab over chemotherapy was broadly consistent within subgroups, including patients with a PD-L1 expression level of at least 1% and those with a level of less than 1%. The rate of grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events was 31.2% with nivolumab plus ipilimumab and 36.1% with chemotherapy. Conclusions Progression-free survival was significantly longer with first-line nivolumab plus ipilimumab than with chemotherapy among patients with NSCLC and a high tumor mutational burden, irrespective of PD-L1 expression level. The results validate the benefit of nivolumab plus ipilimumab in NSCLC and the role of tumor mutational burden as a biomarker for patient selection. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Ono Pharmaceutical; CheckMate 227 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02477826 .).

PMID: 29658845 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

First-line ceritinib versus platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (ASCEND-4): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study.

man, 04/16/2018 - 12:00
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First-line ceritinib versus platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (ASCEND-4): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study.

Lancet. 2017 03 04;389(10072):917-929

Authors: Soria JC, Tan DSW, Chiari R, Wu YL, Paz-Ares L, Wolf J, Geater SL, Orlov S, Cortinovis D, Yu CJ, Hochmair M, Cortot AB, Tsai CM, Moro-Sibilot D, Campelo RG, McCulloch T, Sen P, Dugan M, Pantano S, Branle F, Massacesi C, de Castro G

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of ceritinib in patients with untreated anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not known. We assessed the efficacy and safety of ceritinib versus platinum-based chemotherapy in these patients.
METHODS: This randomised, open-label, phase 3 study in untreated patients with stage IIIB/IV ALK-rearranged non-squamous NSCLC was done in 134 centres across 28 countries. Eligible patients were assigned via interactive response technology to oral ceritinib 750 mg/day or platinum-based chemotherapy ([cisplatin 75 mg/m2 or carboplatin AUC 5-6 plus pemetrexed 500 mg/m2] every 3 weeks for four cycles followed by maintenance pemetrexed); randomisation was stratified by World Health Organization performance status (0 vs 1-2), previous neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy, and presence of brain metastases as per investigator's assessment at screening. Investigators and patients were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was blinded independent review committee assessed progression-free survival, based on all randomly assigned patients (the full analysis set). Efficacy analyses were done based on the full analysis set. All safety analyses were done based on the safety set, which included all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01828099.
FINDINGS: Between Aug 19, 2013, and May 11, 2015, 376 patients were randomly assigned to ceritinib (n=189) or chemotherapy (n=187). Median progression-free survival (as assessed by blinded independent review committee) was 16·6 months (95% CI 12·6-27·2) in the ceritinib group and 8·1 months (5·8-11·1) in the chemotherapy group (hazard ratio 0·55 [95% CI 0·42-0·73]; p<0·00001). The most common adverse events were diarrhoea (in 160 [85%] of 189 patients), nausea (130 [69%]), vomiting (125 [66%]), and an increase in alanine aminotransferase (114 [60%]) in the ceritinib group and nausea (in 97 [55%] of 175 patients), vomiting (63 [36%]), and anaemia (62 [35%]) in the chemotherapy group.
INTERPRETATION: First-line ceritinib showed a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in progression-free survival versus chemotherapy in patients with advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC.
FUNDING: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation.

PMID: 28126333 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

First-line treatment options for ALK-rearranged lung cancer.

tir, 04/10/2018 - 08:00
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First-line treatment options for ALK-rearranged lung cancer.

Lancet. 2017 03 04;389(10072):884-886

Authors: Solomon B

PMID: 28126330 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Phase II Study of Crizotinib in East Asian Patients With ROS1-Positive Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

lør, 03/31/2018 - 03:00
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Phase II Study of Crizotinib in East Asian Patients With ROS1-Positive Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Mar 29;:JCO2017755587

Authors: Wu YL, Yang JC, Kim DW, Lu S, Zhou J, Seto T, Yang JJ, Yamamoto N, Ahn MJ, Takahashi T, Yamanaka T, Kemner A, Roychowdhury D, Paolini J, Usari T, Wilner KD, Goto K

Abstract
Purpose Approximately 1% to 2% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) harbor a c-ros oncogene 1 ( ROS1) rearrangement. Crizotinib, an inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1, and MET, has shown marked antitumor activity in a small expansion cohort of patients with ROS1-positive advanced NSCLC from an ongoing phase I study. We assessed the efficacy and safety of crizotinib in the largest cohort of patients with ROS1-positive advanced NSCLC. Patients and Methods This phase II, open-label, single-arm trial enrolled East Asian patients with ROS1-positive (assessed through validated AmoyDx assay [Amoy Diagnostics, Xiamen, China] at three regional laboratories) advanced NSCLC who had received three or fewer lines of prior systemic therapies. Patients were to receive oral crizotinib at a starting dose of 250 mg twice daily and continued treatment until Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1-defined progression (by independent radiology review [IRR]), unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) by IRR. Results In the efficacy and safety analyses, 127 patients were included, with 49.6% still receiving treatment at data cutoff. ORR by IRR was 71.7% (95% CI, 63.0% to 79.3%), with 17 complete responses and 74 partial responses. ORRs were similar irrespective of the number of prior lines of therapy, and responses were durable (median duration of response, 19.7 months; 95% CI, 14.1 months to not reached). Median progression-free survival by IRR was 15.9 months (95% CI, 12.9 to 24.0 months). No new safety signals associated with crizotinib were reported. Conclusion This study demonstrated clinically meaningful benefit and durable responses with crizotinib in East Asian patients with ROS1-positive advanced NSCLC. Crizotinib was generally well tolerated, with a safety profile consistent with previous reports.

PMID: 29596029 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Five-Year Follow-Up of Nivolumab in Previously Treated Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Results From the CA209-003 Study.

fre, 03/30/2018 - 02:30
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Five-Year Follow-Up of Nivolumab in Previously Treated Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Results From the CA209-003 Study.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Mar 23;:JCO2017770412

Authors: Gettinger S, Horn L, Jackman D, Spigel D, Antonia S, Hellmann M, Powderly J, Heist R, Sequist LV, Smith DC, Leming P, Geese WJ, Yoon D, Li A, Brahmer J

Abstract
Purpose In two phase III studies, nivolumab, a programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor antibody, improved overall survival (OS) versus docetaxel in pretreated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report 5-year follow-up results from an early phase I study of nivolumab in this patient population and describe characteristics of 5-year survivors. Patients and Methods Patients with pretreated, advanced NSCLC received nivolumab 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks in 8-week cycles for up to 96 weeks. OS from the time of first dose was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The estimated 5-year OS rate was 16% for all treated patients (N = 129); 5-year OS rates were similar for squamous (16%) and nonsquamous (15%) NSCLC. Of 16 5-year survivors, most (88%) were known current or former smokers. Of 10 5-year survivors with quantifiable PD-1 ligand 1 expression, 70% had ≥ 1% PD-1 ligand 1 expression at baseline. Twelve 5-year survivors (75%) achieved a partial response to nivolumab per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.0, and two each (12%) had stable disease and progressive disease as best response. Nine 5-year survivors (56%) completed the maximum 96 weeks of nivolumab; four (25%) discontinued owing to adverse events and three (19%) owing to disease progression. As of a November 2016 database lock, 12 5-year survivors (75%) received no subsequent therapy and were without evidence of progressive disease at last follow-up. Conclusions Nivolumab treatment resulted in long-term OS and durable responses in a proportion of patients with pretreated advanced NSCLC. Long-term survivors had diverse baseline and on-treatment characteristics.

PMID: 29570421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Phase II Study of Fruquintinib After Two Prior Chemotherapy Regimens in Chinese Patients With Advanced Nonsquamous Non‒Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

fre, 03/23/2018 - 23:30
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Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Phase II Study of Fruquintinib After Two Prior Chemotherapy Regimens in Chinese Patients With Advanced Nonsquamous Non‒Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Mar 12;:JCO2017767145

Authors: Lu S, Chang J, Liu X, Shi J, Lu Y, Li W, Yang JJ, Zhou J, Wang J, An T, Yang L, Liu Z, Zhou X, Chen M, Hua Y, Su W

Abstract
Purpose Patients with advanced non‒small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who fail two lines of chemotherapy have unmet medical needs. The kinase inhibitor fruquintinib selectively targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and, hence, tumor angiogenesis and lymphogenesis. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of fruquintinib in patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC who experienced disease progression after second-line chemotherapy. Patients and Methods Eligible patients were randomly assigned (two to one; stratified by epidermal growth factor receptor status) to receive fruquintinib or placebo, both in combination with best supportive care. Oral fruquintinib (5 mg once daily) was given in 4-week cycles of 3 weeks of treatment followed by 1 week off. Tumor response was assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) evaluated by a blinded image central review (BICR) committee. Secondary end points included investigator-evaluated PFS, objective response rate, disease control rate, overall survival, and safety. Results Ninety-one patients from 12 hospitals received treatment with fruquintinib (n = 61) or placebo (n = 30). Median PFS was 3.8 months with fruquintinib by both BICR and investigators' evaluations (hazard ratio by BICR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.57; P < .001). Three- and 6-month survival rates were 90.2% and 67.2% in the fruquintinib group and 73.3% and 58.8% in the placebo group, respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 13.1% and 60.7% with fruquintinib, compared with 0% and 13.3% with placebo ( P = .041 and < .001), respectively. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events with fruquintinib (≥ grade 3) were hypertension (8.2%), hand-foot syndrome (4.9%), and proteinuria (4.9%). Conclusion Third- and fourth-line fruquintinib for advanced NSCLC was superior to placebo and had an acceptable safety profile.

PMID: 29528793 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]