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Effect of the RET Inhibitor Vandetanib in a Patient With RET Fusion-Positive Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

lør, 07/21/2018 - 17:00
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Effect of the RET Inhibitor Vandetanib in a Patient With RET Fusion-Positive Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

J Clin Oncol. 2016 05 20;34(15):e141-4

Authors: Falchook GS, Ordóñez NG, Bastida CC, Stephens PJ, Miller VA, Gaido L, Jackson T, Karp DD

PMID: 25366691 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Thoracotomy for Stage I Lung Cancer Resections: A Procedure Past Its Time.

tir, 07/03/2018 - 08:00
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Thoracotomy for Stage I Lung Cancer Resections: A Procedure Past Its Time.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jun 26;:JCO2018793042

Authors: Donington JS

PMID: 29945517 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Infiltrating the Blood-Brain Barrier in ALK-Positive Lung Cancer.

tor, 06/28/2018 - 05:30
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Infiltrating the Blood-Brain Barrier in ALK-Positive Lung Cancer.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jun 25;:JCO2018788554

Authors: Zweig JR, Neal JW

PMID: 29939839 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Atezolizumab for First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Nonsquamous NSCLC.

tir, 06/26/2018 - 04:30
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Atezolizumab for First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Nonsquamous NSCLC.

N Engl J Med. 2018 06 14;378(24):2288-2301

Authors: Socinski MA, Jotte RM, Cappuzzo F, Orlandi F, Stroyakovskiy D, Nogami N, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Moro-Sibilot D, Thomas CA, Barlesi F, Finley G, Kelsch C, Lee A, Coleman S, Deng Y, Shen Y, Kowanetz M, Lopez-Chavez A, Sandler A, Reck M, IMpower150 Study Group

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The cancer-cell-killing property of atezolizumab may be enhanced by the blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated immunosuppression with bevacizumab. This open-label, phase 3 study evaluated atezolizumab plus bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in patients with metastatic nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had not previously received chemotherapy.
METHODS: We randomly assigned patients to receive atezolizumab plus carboplatin plus paclitaxel (ACP), bevacizumab plus carboplatin plus paclitaxel (BCP), or atezolizumab plus BCP (ABCP) every 3 weeks for four or six cycles, followed by maintenance therapy with atezolizumab, bevacizumab, or both. The two primary end points were investigator-assessed progression-free survival both among patients in the intention-to-treat population who had a wild-type genotype (WT population; patients with EGFR or ALK genetic alterations were excluded) and among patients in the WT population who had high expression of an effector T-cell (Teff) gene signature in the tumor (Teff-high WT population) and overall survival in the WT population. The ABCP group was compared with the BCP group before the ACP group was compared with the BCP group.
RESULTS: In the WT population, 356 patients were assigned to the ABCP group, and 336 to the BCP group. The median progression-free survival was longer in the ABCP group than in the BCP group (8.3 months vs. 6.8 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.74; P<0.001); the corresponding values in the Teff-high WT population were 11.3 months and 6.8 months (hazard ratio, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.38 to 0.68]; P<0.001). Progression-free survival was also longer in the ABCP group than in the BCP group in the entire intention-to-treat population (including those with EGFR or ALK genetic alterations) and among patients with low or negative programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, those with low Teff gene-signature expression, and those with liver metastases. Median overall survival among the patients in the WT population was longer in the ABCP group than in the BCP group (19.2 months vs. 14.7 months; hazard ratio for death, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.96; P=0.02). The safety profile of ABCP was consistent with previously reported safety risks of the individual medicines.
CONCLUSIONS: The addition of atezolizumab to bevacizumab plus chemotherapy significantly improved progression-free survival and overall survival among patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 expression and EGFR or ALK genetic alteration status. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech; IMpower150 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02366143 .).

PMID: 29863955 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase II Study of Temozolomide in Combination With Either Veliparib or Placebo in Patients With Relapsed-Sensitive or Refractory Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

fre, 06/22/2018 - 01:30
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Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase II Study of Temozolomide in Combination With Either Veliparib or Placebo in Patients With Relapsed-Sensitive or Refractory Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jun 15;:JCO2018777672

Authors: Pietanza MC, Waqar SN, Krug LM, Dowlati A, Hann CL, Chiappori A, Owonikoko TK, Woo KM, Cardnell RJ, Fujimoto J, Long L, Diao L, Wang J, Bensman Y, Hurtado B, de Groot P, Sulman EP, Wistuba II, Chen A, Fleisher M, Heymach JV, Kris MG, Rudin CM, Byers LA

Abstract
Purpose Both temozolomide (TMZ) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are active in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). This phase II, randomized, double-blind study evaluated whether addition of the PARP inhibitor veliparib to TMZ improves 4-month progression-free survival (PFS). Patients and Methods A total of 104 patients with recurrent SCLC were randomly assigned 1:1 to oral veliparib or placebo 40 mg twice daily, days 1 to 7, and oral TMZ 150 to 200 mg/m2/day, days 1 to 5, of a 28-day cycle until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. Response was determined by imaging at weeks 4 and 8, and every 8 weeks thereafter. Improvement in PFS at 4 months was the primary end point. Secondary objectives included overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety and tolerability of veliparib with TMZ. Exploratory objectives included PARP-1 and SLFN11 immunohistochemical expression, MGMT promoter methylation, and circulating tumor cell quantification. Results No significant difference in 4-month PFS was noted between TMZ/veliparib (36%) and TMZ/placebo (27%; P = .19); median OS was also not improved significantly with TMZ/veliparib (8.2 months; 95% CI, 6.4 to 12.2 months; v 7.0 months; 95% CI, 5.3 to 9.5 months; P = .50). However, ORR was significantly higher in patients receiving TMZ/veliparib compared with TMZ/placebo (39% v 14%; P = .016). Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia and neutropenia more commonly occurred with TMZ/veliparib: 50% versus 9% and 31% versus 7%, respectively. Significantly prolonged PFS (5.7 v 3.6 months; P = .009) and OS (12.2 v 7.5 months; P = .014) were observed in patients with SLFN11-positive tumors treated with TMZ/veliparib. Conclusion Four-month PFS and median OS did not differ between the two arms, whereas a significant improvement in ORR was observed with TMZ/veliparib. SLFN11 expression was associated with improved PFS and OS in patients receiving TMZ/veliparib, suggesting a promising biomarker of PARP-inhibitor sensitivity in SCLC.

PMID: 29906251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Pembrolizumab plus Chemotherapy in Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

fre, 06/15/2018 - 21:30
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Pembrolizumab plus Chemotherapy in Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med. 2018 05 31;378(22):2078-2092

Authors: Gandhi L, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Gadgeel S, Esteban E, Felip E, De Angelis F, Domine M, Clingan P, Hochmair MJ, Powell SF, Cheng SY, Bischoff HG, Peled N, Grossi F, Jennens RR, Reck M, Hui R, Garon EB, Boyer M, Rubio-Viqueira B, Novello S, Kurata T, Gray JE, Vida J, Wei Z, Yang J, Raftopoulos H, Pietanza MC, Garassino MC, KEYNOTE-189 Investigators

Abstract
BACKGROUND: First-line therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that lacks targetable mutations is platinum-based chemotherapy. Among patients with a tumor proportion score for programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) of 50% or greater, pembrolizumab has replaced cytotoxic chemotherapy as the first-line treatment of choice. The addition of pembrolizumab to chemotherapy resulted in significantly higher rates of response and longer progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone in a phase 2 trial.
METHODS: In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) 616 patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without sensitizing EGFR or ALK mutations who had received no previous treatment for metastatic disease to receive pemetrexed and a platinum-based drug plus either 200 mg of pembrolizumab or placebo every 3 weeks for 4 cycles, followed by pembrolizumab or placebo for up to a total of 35 cycles plus pemetrexed maintenance therapy. Crossover to pembrolizumab monotherapy was permitted among the patients in the placebo-combination group who had verified disease progression. The primary end points were overall survival and progression-free survival, as assessed by blinded, independent central radiologic review.
RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 10.5 months, the estimated rate of overall survival at 12 months was 69.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.1 to 73.8) in the pembrolizumab-combination group versus 49.4% (95% CI, 42.1 to 56.2) in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for death, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; P<0.001). Improvement in overall survival was seen across all PD-L1 categories that were evaluated. Median progression-free survival was 8.8 months (95% CI, 7.6 to 9.2) in the pembrolizumab-combination group and 4.9 months (95% CI, 4.7 to 5.5) in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.64; P<0.001). Adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 67.2% of the patients in the pembrolizumab-combination group and in 65.8% of those in the placebo-combination group.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with previously untreated metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without EGFR or ALK mutations, the addition of pembrolizumab to standard chemotherapy of pemetrexed and a platinum-based drug resulted in significantly longer overall survival and progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone. (Funded by Merck; KEYNOTE-189 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02578680 .).

PMID: 29658856 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Lung Cancer with a High Tumor Mutational Burden.

fre, 06/15/2018 - 21:30
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Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Lung Cancer with a High Tumor Mutational Burden.

N Engl J Med. 2018 05 31;378(22):2093-2104

Authors: Hellmann MD, Ciuleanu TE, Pluzanski A, Lee JS, Otterson GA, Audigier-Valette C, Minenza E, Linardou H, Burgers S, Salman P, Borghaei H, Ramalingam SS, Brahmer J, Reck M, O'Byrne KJ, Geese WJ, Green G, Chang H, Szustakowski J, Bhagavatheeswaran P, Healey D, Fu Y, Nathan F, Paz-Ares L

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab plus ipilimumab showed promising efficacy for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a phase 1 trial, and tumor mutational burden has emerged as a potential biomarker of benefit. In this part of an open-label, multipart, phase 3 trial, we examined progression-free survival with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus chemotherapy among patients with a high tumor mutational burden (≥10 mutations per megabase).
METHODS: We enrolled patients with stage IV or recurrent NSCLC that was not previously treated with chemotherapy. Those with a level of tumor programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression of at least 1% were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to receive nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab monotherapy, or chemotherapy; those with a tumor PD-L1 expression level of less than 1% were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to receive nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab plus chemotherapy, or chemotherapy. Tumor mutational burden was determined by the FoundationOne CDx assay.
RESULTS: Progression-free survival among patients with a high tumor mutational burden was significantly longer with nivolumab plus ipilimumab than with chemotherapy. The 1-year progression-free survival rate was 42.6% with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus 13.2% with chemotherapy, and the median progression-free survival was 7.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5 to 13.2) versus 5.5 months (95% CI, 4.4 to 5.8) (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.58; 97.5% CI, 0.41 to 0.81; P<0.001). The objective response rate was 45.3% with nivolumab plus ipilimumab and 26.9% with chemotherapy. The benefit of nivolumab plus ipilimumab over chemotherapy was broadly consistent within subgroups, including patients with a PD-L1 expression level of at least 1% and those with a level of less than 1%. The rate of grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events was 31.2% with nivolumab plus ipilimumab and 36.1% with chemotherapy. ical; CheckMate 227 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02477826 .).
CONCLUSIONS: Progression-free survival was significantly longer with first-line nivolumab plus ipilimumab than with chemotherapy among patients with NSCLC and a high tumor mutational burden, irrespective of PD-L1 expression level. The results validate the benefit of nivolumab plus ipilimumab in NSCLC and the role of tumor mutational burden as a biomarker for patient selection. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Ono Pharmaceut

PMID: 29658845 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Improvement in Overall Survival in a Randomized Study That Compared Dacomitinib With Gefitinib in Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and EGFR-Activating Mutations.

fre, 06/08/2018 - 18:00

Improvement in Overall Survival in a Randomized Study That Compared Dacomitinib With Gefitinib in Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and EGFR-Activating Mutations.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jun 04;:JCO2018787994

Authors: Mok TS, Cheng Y, Zhou X, Lee KH, Nakagawa K, Niho S, Lee M, Linke R, Rosell R, Corral J, Migliorino MR, Pluzanski A, Sbar EI, Wang T, White JL, Wu YL

Abstract
Purpose ARCHER 1050, a randomized, open-label, phase III study of dacomitinib versus gefitinib in treatment-naïve patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and activating mutations in EGFR, reported significant improvement in progression-free survival with dacomitinib. The mature overall survival (OS) analysis for the intention-to-treat population is presented here. Patients and Methods In this multinational, multicenter study, patients age 18 years or older (≥ 20 years in Japan and Korea) who had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 and newly diagnosed NSCLC with activating mutations in EGFR (exon 19 deletion or exon 21 L858R) were enrolled and randomly assigned in a 1:1 manner to dacomitinib (n = 227) or gefitinib (n = 225). Random assignment was stratified by race (Japanese, Chinese, other East Asian, or non-Asian) and EGFR mutation type. The final OS analysis was conducted with a data cutoff date of February 17, 2017; at that time 220 deaths (48.7%) were observed. Results During a median follow-up time of 31.3 months, 103 (45.4%) and 117 (52.0%) deaths occurred in the dacomitinib and gefitinib arms, respectively. The estimated hazard ratio for OS was 0.760 (95% CI, 0.582 to 0.993; two-sided P = .044). The median OS was 34.1 months with dacomitinib versus 26.8 months with gefitinib. The OS probabilities at 30 months were 56.2% and 46.3% with dacomitinib and gefitinib, respectively. Preliminary subgroup analyses for OS that are based on baseline characteristics were consistent with the primary OS analysis. Conclusion In patients with advanced NSCLC and EGFR activating mutations, dacomitinib is the first second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) to show significant improvement in OS in a phase III randomized study compared with a standard-of-care TKI. Dacomitinib should be considered one of the standard treatment options for these patients.

PMID: 29864379 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

ARCHER 1050: Hitting an Important Mark in EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer?

fre, 06/08/2018 - 18:00

ARCHER 1050: Hitting an Important Mark in EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer?

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jun 04;:JCO2018793059

Authors: Piotrowska Z, Gainor JF

PMID: 29864378 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Higher Lung Cancer Incidence in Young Women Than Young Men in the United States.

fre, 06/08/2018 - 18:00
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Higher Lung Cancer Incidence in Young Women Than Young Men in the United States.

N Engl J Med. 2018 05 24;378(21):1999-2009

Authors: Jemal A, Miller KD, Ma J, Siegel RL, Fedewa SA, Islami F, Devesa SS, Thun MJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed a higher incidence of lung cancer among young women than among young men in the United States. Whether this pattern has continued in contemporary birth cohorts and, if so, whether it can be fully explained by sex differences in smoking behaviors are unknown.
METHODS: We examined the nationwide population-based incidence of lung cancer according to sex, race or ethnic group, age group (30 to 34, 35 to 39, 40 to 44, 45 to 49, and 50 to 54 years), year of birth (1945 to 1980), and calendar period of diagnosis (1995-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014), and we calculated female-to-male incidence rate ratios. We also examined the prevalence of cigarette smoking, using data from the National Health Interview Survey from 1970 to 2016.
RESULTS: Over the past two decades, the age-specific incidence of lung cancer has generally decreased among both men and women 30 to 54 years of age in all races and ethnic groups, but the declines among men have been steeper. Consequently, among non-Hispanic whites, the female-to-male incidence rate ratios increased, exceeding 1.0 in the age groups of 30 to 34, 35 to 39, 40 to 44, and 45 to 49 years. For example, the female-to-male incidence rate ratio among whites 40 to 44 years of age increased from 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 0.92) during the 1995-1999 period to 1.17 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.23) during the 2010-2014 period. The crossover in sex-specific rates occurred among non-Hispanic whites born since 1965. Sex-specific incidence rates converged among non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Asians and Pacific Islanders but crossed over from a higher incidence among men to a higher incidence among women only among Hispanics. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among women born since 1965 has approached, but generally not exceeded, the prevalence among men.
CONCLUSIONS: The patterns of historically higher incidence rates of lung cancer among men than among women have reversed among non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics born since the mid-1960s, and they are not fully explained by sex differences in smoking behaviors. Future studies are needed to identify reasons for the higher incidence of lung cancer among young women. (Funded by the American Cancer Society.).

PMID: 29791813 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Neoadjuvant PD-1 Blockade in Resectable Lung Cancer.

fre, 06/08/2018 - 18:00
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Neoadjuvant PD-1 Blockade in Resectable Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med. 2018 05 24;378(21):1976-1986

Authors: Forde PM, Chaft JE, Smith KN, Anagnostou V, Cottrell TR, Hellmann MD, Zahurak M, Yang SC, Jones DR, Broderick S, Battafarano RJ, Velez MJ, Rekhtman N, Olah Z, Naidoo J, Marrone KA, Verde F, Guo H, Zhang J, Caushi JX, Chan HY, Sidhom JW, Scharpf RB, White J, Gabrielson E, Wang H, Rosner GL, Rusch V, Wolchok JD, Merghoub T, Taube JM, Velculescu VE, Topalian SL, Brahmer JR, Pardoll DM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Antibodies that block programmed death 1 (PD-1) protein improve survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but have not been tested in resectable NSCLC, a condition in which little progress has been made during the past decade.
METHODS: In this pilot study, we administered two preoperative doses of PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab in adults with untreated, surgically resectable early (stage I, II, or IIIA) NSCLC. Nivolumab (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight) was administered intravenously every 2 weeks, with surgery planned approximately 4 weeks after the first dose. The primary end points of the study were safety and feasibility. We also evaluated the tumor pathological response, expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), mutational burden, and mutation-associated, neoantigen-specific T-cell responses.
RESULTS: Neoadjuvant nivolumab had an acceptable side-effect profile and was not associated with delays in surgery. Of the 21 tumors that were removed, 20 were completely resected. A major pathological response occurred in 9 of 20 resected tumors (45%). Responses occurred in both PD-L1-positive and PD-L1-negative tumors. There was a significant correlation between the pathological response and the pretreatment tumor mutational burden. The number of T-cell clones that were found in both the tumor and peripheral blood increased systemically after PD-1 blockade in eight of nine patients who were evaluated. Mutation-associated, neoantigen-specific T-cell clones from a primary tumor with a complete response on pathological assessment rapidly expanded in peripheral blood at 2 to 4 weeks after treatment; some of these clones were not detected before the administration of nivolumab.
CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant nivolumab was associated with few side effects, did not delay surgery, and induced a major pathological response in 45% of resected tumors. The tumor mutational burden was predictive of the pathological response to PD-1 blockade. Treatment induced expansion of mutation-associated, neoantigen-specific T-cell clones in peripheral blood. (Funded by Cancer Research Institute-Stand Up 2 Cancer and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02259621 .).

PMID: 29658848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A New Standard of Care for Advanced Lung Cancer.

man, 06/04/2018 - 15:30
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A New Standard of Care for Advanced Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med. 2018 05 31;378(22):2135-2137

Authors: Schiller JH

PMID: 29847766 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Minimally Invasive Lung Cancer Surgery Performed by Thoracic Surgeons as Effective as Thoracotomy.

ons, 05/30/2018 - 12:30
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Minimally Invasive Lung Cancer Surgery Performed by Thoracic Surgeons as Effective as Thoracotomy.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 23;:JCO2018778977

Authors: Boffa DJ, Kosinski AS, Furnary AP, Kim S, Onaitis MW, Tong BC, Cowper PA, Hoag JR, Jacobs JP, Wright CD, Putnam JB, Fernandez FG

Abstract
Purpose The prevalence of minimally invasive lung cancer surgery using video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has increased dramatically over the past decade, yet recent studies have suggested that the lymph node evaluation during VATS lobectomy is inadequate. We hypothesized that the minimally invasive approach to lobectomy for stage I lung cancer resulted in a longitudinal outcome that was not inferior to thoracotomy. Patients and Methods Patients > 65 years of age who had undergone lobectomy for stage I lung cancer between 2002 and 2013 were analyzed within the Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Surgery Database, which had been linked to Medicare data, as part of a retrospective-cohort, noninferiority study. Results A total of 10,597 patients with clinical stage I lung cancer who underwent lobectomy were evaluated (4,448 patients underwent thoracotomy, and 6,149 underwent VATS). VATS patients had a more favorable distribution of all health-related variables, including pulmonary function (59% of VATS patients had intact spirometry v 51% of thoracotomy patients; P < .001). Cox proportional hazards models were performed over two eras to account for an evolving practice standard. The mortality risk associated with the VATS approach was not greater than thoracotomy in either the earlier era (2002 to 2008; hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.09; P = .62) or the more recent era (2009 to 2013; hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.93; P < .001). Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of 2,901 propensity-matched VATS-thoracotomy pairs demonstrated that the 4-year survival associated with VATS (68.6%) was modestly superior to thoracotomy (64.8%; P = .003). The analyses detailed above were replicated in a separate cohort of pathologic stage I patients with similar findings. Conclusion The long-term efficacy of lobectomy for stage I lung cancer performed using the VATS approach by board-certified thoracic surgeons does not seem to be inferior to that of thoracotomy.

PMID: 29791289 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Versus Observation in Radically Treated Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Randomized Phase III NVALT-11/DLCRG-02 Study.

tor, 05/24/2018 - 08:30
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Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Versus Observation in Radically Treated Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Randomized Phase III NVALT-11/DLCRG-02 Study.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 22;:JCO2017775817

Authors: De Ruysscher D, Dingemans AC, Praag J, Belderbos J, Tissing-Tan C, Herder J, Haitjema T, Ubbels F, Lagerwaard F, El Sharouni SY, Stigt JA, Smit E, van Tinteren H, van der Noort V, Groen HJM

Abstract
Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) reduces the incidence of symptomatic brain metastases in patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with curative intention. Patients and Methods Patients with stage III NSCLC-staged with a contrast-enhanced brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging-were randomly assigned to either observation or PCI after concurrent/sequential chemoradiotherapy with or without surgery. The primary end point-development of symptomatic brain metastases at 24 months-was defined as one or a combination of key symptoms that suggest brain metastases-signs of increased intracranial pressure, headache, nausea and vomiting, cognitive or affective disturbances, seizures, and focal neurologic symptoms-and magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography demonstrating the existence of brain metastasis. Adverse effects, survival, quality of life, quality-adjusted survival, and health care costs were secondary end points. Results Between 2009 and 2015, 175 patients were randomly assigned: 87 received PCI and 88 underwent observation only. Median follow-up was 48.5 months (95% CI, 39 to 54 months). Six (7.0%) of 86 patients in the PCI group and 24 (27.2%) of 88 patients in the control group had symptomatic brain metastases ( P = .001). PCI significantly increased the time to develop symptomatic brain metastases (hazard ratio, 0.23; [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.56]; P = .0012). Median time to develop brain metastases was not reached in either arm. Overall survival was not significantly different between both arms. Grade 1 and 2 memory impairment (26 of 86 v seven of 88 patients) and cognitive disturbance (16 of 86 v three of 88 patients) were significantly increased in the PCI arm. Quality of life was only decreased 3 months post-PCI and was similar to the observation arm thereafter. Conclusion PCI significantly decreased the proportion of patients who developed symptomatic brain metastases with an increase of low-grade toxicity.

PMID: 29787357 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Exploratory Analysis of Brigatinib Activity in Patients With Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Brain Metastases in Two Clinical Trials.

ons, 05/23/2018 - 08:00
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Exploratory Analysis of Brigatinib Activity in Patients With Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Brain Metastases in Two Clinical Trials.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 16;:JCO2017775841

Authors: Camidge DR, Kim DW, Tiseo M, Langer CJ, Ahn MJ, Shaw AT, Huber RM, Hochmair MJ, Lee DH, Bazhenova LA, Gold KA, Ou SI, West HL, Reichmann W, Haney J, Clackson T, Kerstein D, Gettinger SN

Abstract
Purpose In patients with crizotinib-treated, anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene ( ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (ALK-positive NSCLC), initial disease progression often occurs in the CNS. We evaluated brigatinib, a next-generation ALK inhibitor, in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC with brain metastases. Patients and Methods Patients with ALK-positive NSCLC received brigatinib (90 to 240 mg total daily) in a phase I/II trial (phI/II; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01449461) and in the subsequent randomized phase II trial ALTA (ALK in Lung Cancer Trial of AP26113; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02094573) patients in arm A received 90 mg once daily; patients in arm B received 180 mg daily with 7-day lead-in at 90 mg. Primary end points (systemic objective response rates [ORRs]) were previously reported. Independent review committees assessed intracranial efficacy in patients with baseline brain metastases. Results Most patients with ALK-positive NSCLC had baseline brain metastases (50 of 79 [63%], phI/II; 80 of 112 [71%] and 73 of 110 [66%] in ALTA arms A and B, respectively), many of whom had no prior brain radiotherapy (23 of 50 [46%], phI/II; 32 of 80 [40%], ALTA arm A; 30 of 73 [41%], arm B). All patients, except four in phI/II, had received crizotinib. Among patients with measurable (≥ 10 mm) brain metastases, confirmed intracranial ORR was 53% (eight of 15; 95% CI, 27% to 79%) in phI/II, 46% (12 of 26; 95% CI, 27% to 67%) in ALTA arm A, and 67% (12 of 18; 95% CI, 41% to 87%) in arm B. Intracranial ORRs were similar in subsets without prior radiation or progression postradiation. Among patients with any baseline brain metastases, median intracranial progression-free survival (iPFS) was 14.6 months (95% CI, 12.7 to 36.8 months), phI/II; 15.6 months (95% CI, 9.0 to 18.3 months), ALTA arm A; 18.4 months (95% CI, 12.8 months to not reached), ALTA arm B. Conclusion Brigatinib yielded substantial intracranial responses and durable iPFS in ALK-positive, crizotinib-treated NSCLC, with highest iPFS in patients receiving 180 mg per day (with lead-in).

PMID: 29768119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Final Overall Survival Analysis From a Study Comparing First-Line Crizotinib With Chemotherapy: Results From PROFILE 1014.

ons, 05/23/2018 - 08:00
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Final Overall Survival Analysis From a Study Comparing First-Line Crizotinib With Chemotherapy: Results From PROFILE 1014.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 16;:JCO2017774794

Authors: Solomon BJ, Kim DW, Wu YL, Nakagawa K, Mekhail T, Felip E, Cappuzzo F, Paolini J, Usari T, Tang Y, Wilner KD, Blackhall F, Mok TS

Abstract
Purpose The phase III PROFILE 1014 trial compared crizotinib with chemotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) -positive advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Here, we report the final overall survival (OS) results. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned to receive oral crizotinib 250 mg twice daily (n = 172) or intravenous pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 plus cisplatin 75 mg/m2 or carboplatin (area under the concentration-time curve of 5 to 6 mg·mL/min) every 3 weeks for a maximum of six cycles (n = 171). Crossover to crizotinib was permitted after disease progression. OS was analyzed using a stratified log-rank test and a prespecified rank-preserving structural failure time model to account for crossover. Results Median follow-up duration for OS was approximately 46 months for both arms. In the chemotherapy arm, 144 patients (84.2%) received crizotinib in subsequent lines. Hazard ratio for OS was 0.760 (95% CI, 0.548 to 1.053; two-sided P = .0978). Median OS was not reached (NR) with crizotinib (95% CI, 45.8 months to NR) and 47.5 months with chemotherapy (95% CI, 32.2 months to NR). Survival probability at 4 years was 56.6% (95% CI, 48.3% to 64.1%) with crizotinib and 49.1% (95% CI, 40.5% to 57.1%) with chemotherapy. After crossover adjustment, there was an improvement in OS that favored crizotinib (hazard ratio, 0.346; 95% bootstrap CI, 0.081 to 0.718). The longest OS was observed in crizotinib-treated patients who received a subsequent ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor. No new safety signals were identified. Conclusion The final analysis of the PROFILE 1014 study provides a new benchmark for OS in patients with ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer and highlights the benefit of crizotinib for prolonging survival in this patient population.

PMID: 29768118 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Molecular Testing Guideline for the Selection of Patients With Lung Cancer for Targeted Therapy.

tor, 05/17/2018 - 03:00
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Molecular Testing Guideline for the Selection of Patients With Lung Cancer for Targeted Therapy.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 15;:JCO2018788240

Authors: Copur MS, Crockett D, Gauchan D, Ramaekers R, Mleczko K

PMID: 29763342 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Safety of Programmed Death-1 Pathway Inhibitors Among Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Preexisting Autoimmune Disorders.

ons, 05/16/2018 - 02:30
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Safety of Programmed Death-1 Pathway Inhibitors Among Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Preexisting Autoimmune Disorders.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 10;:JCO2017770305

Authors: Leonardi GC, Gainor JF, Altan M, Kravets S, Dahlberg SE, Gedmintas L, Azimi R, Rizvi H, Riess JW, Hellmann MD, Awad MM

Abstract
Purpose Although programmed death (PD)-1 pathway inhibitors are now used in nearly all patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the large number of patients with NSCLC and concurrent autoimmune disease (AID) have been universally excluded from immunotherapy clinical trials. Therefore, the safety of PD-1 and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors in patients with NSCLC and underlying AID is currently unknown. Methods As part of a multi-institutional effort, we retrospectively collected clinicopathologic data from patients with NSCLC and a history of AID who received monotherapy with either a PD-1 or a PD-L1 (herein referred to as PD-[L]1) inhibitor. Qualifying AIDs included but were not limited to: rheumatologic, neurologic, endocrine, GI, and dermatologic conditions. Results We identified 56 patients with NSCLC and an AID who received a PD-(L)1 inhibitor. At the time of treatment initiation, 18% of patients had active AID symptoms and 20% were receiving immunomodulatory agents for their AID. A total of 55% of patients developed an AID flare and/or an immune-related adverse event (irAE). Exacerbation of the AID occurred in 13 patients (23% of the whole cohort), four of whom required systemic corticosteroids. Immune-related adverse events occurred in 21 patients (38%). Among irAEs, 74% were grade 1 or 2 and 26% were grade 3 or 4; eight patients required corticosteroids for irAE management. PD-(L)1 therapy was permanently discontinued in eight patients (14%) because of irAEs. The overall response rate to immunotherapy in this population was 22%. Conclusion In patients with NSCLC with AID treated with a PD-(L)1 inhibitor, exacerbation of AID occurred in a minority of patients. The incidence of irAEs was similar to reported rates in clinical trials where patients with AID were excluded. Adverse events were generally manageable and infrequently led to permanent discontinuation of immunotherapy.

PMID: 29746230 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Challenge of Proving the Value of Proton Therapy in an Unselected Patient Population in the Era of Precision Oncology: The Fallacy of a One-Size-Fits-All Strategy in Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer.

ons, 05/16/2018 - 02:30
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Challenge of Proving the Value of Proton Therapy in an Unselected Patient Population in the Era of Precision Oncology: The Fallacy of a One-Size-Fits-All Strategy in Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 10;:JCO2018783803

Authors: Rengan R, Redman M, Zeng J

PMID: 29746228 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Phase Ib Trial With Birabresib, a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Bromodomain and Extraterminal Proteins, in Patients With Selected Advanced Solid Tumors.

fre, 05/11/2018 - 00:00
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Phase Ib Trial With Birabresib, a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Bromodomain and Extraterminal Proteins, in Patients With Selected Advanced Solid Tumors.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 May 07;:JCO2018782292

Authors: Lewin J, Soria JC, Stathis A, Delord JP, Peters S, Awada A, Aftimos PG, Bekradda M, Rezai K, Zeng Z, Hussain A, Perez S, Siu LL, Massard C

Abstract
Purpose Birabresib (MK-8628/OTX015) is a first-in-class bromodomain inhibitor with activity in select hematologic tumors. Safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of birabresib were evaluated in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer, nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma (NMC), and non-small-cell lung cancer in this phase Ib study. Patients and Methods Forty-seven patients were enrolled to receive birabresib once daily at starting doses of 80 mg continuously (cohort A) or 100 mg for 7 consecutive days (cohort B) in 21-day cycles using a parallel dose escalation 3 + 3 design. The primary objective was occurrence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and determination of the recommended phase II dose. Results Of 46 treated patients, 26 had castrate-resistant prostate cancer, 10 NMC, and 10 non-small-cell lung cancer. For cohort A, four of 19 (21%) evaluable patients had DLTs at 80 mg once daily (grade 3 thrombocytopenia [n = 3], ALT/hyperbilirubinemia [n = 1]) and two of three had DLTs at 100 mg once daily (grade 2 anorexia and nausea with treatment delay > 7 days [n = 1], grade 4 thrombocytopenia [n = 1]). No DLTs occurred in cohort B. Of 46 patients, 38 (83%) had treatment-related adverse events (diarrhea, 17 [37%]; nausea, 17 [37%]; anorexia, 14 [30%]; vomiting, 12 [26%]; thrombocytopenia 10 [22%]). Three patients with NMC (80 mg once daily) had a partial response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] version 1.1) with duration of 1.4 to 8.4 months. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated a dose-proportional increase in birabresib exposure and rapid absorption. Conclusion The recommended phase II dose of birabresib in patients with select solid tumors is 80 mg once daily with continuous dosing. Birabresib has dose-proportional exposure and a favorable safety profile, with clinical activity observed in NMC. Future studies of birabresib must consider intermittent scheduling to possibly mitigate the toxicities of chronic dosing.

PMID: 29733771 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]